THIS COURSE WILL BE FULLY ONLINE AND SYNCHRONOUS (with pre-recorded lectures that also make it possible for the course to be non-synchronous)
Instructor: Professor Terry Bouton
Office Hours: Email and online by appointment
Course Meeting Day/Time: Tu/Th 11:30AM-12:45PM
Course Webpage: https://terrybouton.wordpress.com/hist-340-atlantic-revolutions-syllabus-fall-2021/
This course examines the revolutions that the spread across the Atlantic World from the mid-18th to the mid-19th century, a period some have called the “Age of Revolutions.” The primary focus is exploring the “successful” revolutions of the era: the American Revolution for independence from British rule, The French Revolution, The revolution in Saint-Domingue (the Haitian Revolution) that overthrew both French and white planter rule, and the Latin America Revolutions that achieved independence from Spain. Given the breadth of topics, the objective is not to gain an exhaustive understanding of any one revolution, but rather to explore the connections between them all. To do this we will scrutinize the revolutions by applying the same analytical categories to each one that focus on the process of revolution: 1) the revolution’s causes; 2) the process by which the revolution unfolded; 3) its internal conflicts; 4) the ideologies guiding the revolution and how those ideals found expression in new governments and laws; 5) the effects of warfare on the course of the revolution; 6) the emergence of counter-revolutions against the main revolution (led by those who opposed the revolution from the start and/or revolutionaries who changed their minds); and 7) the revolution’s outcome: the changes it brought and an assessment of its winners and losers. We will use these categories to explore a range of questions: In what ways were the revolutions similar? Did they share common causes, trajectories, ideals, and outcomes? How revolutionary was each revolution in terms opening up rights and freedoms and shifting power to “the people”? What changes did the revolutions bring politically, economically, socially, and in terms of class, race, and gender? Whose position improved? Whose did not? What made some revolutions more successful than others? Why did each revolution seem to become increasingly revolutionary (and often more democratic) as they progressed? Why did each revolution then end with rights and powers being scaled back from what could be called their democratic high point? To what extent were these diverse revolutions independent events? How much did they inspire one another? To what extent were these revolutions similar enough to merit the name “Age of Revolution”? Or were these revolutions too dissimilar to be considered part of a single revolutionary age?
I am offering this course both synchronously and non-synchronously. I will teach the synchronous version live on Tuesdays and Thursdays from 11:30am-12:45pm on Blackboard Collaborate in virtual classroom that you access through the Blackboard page. I will teach non-synchronously by posting pre-recorded “mini-lectures” online that cover the same course material, which will be available 24-7 to view. You are free to take this course either synchronously live-and-in-person or non-synchronously and watch the pre-recorded mini-lectures. Or you may mix synchronous and non-synchronous classes as fits your needs and preferences.
Let me explain my reasoning for this format. After teaching the last two (plus) semesters fully online and non-synchronous, I decided to move to a synchronous online format mostly because I missed student interaction and figured even online in a WebEx format was better than nothing. And so I will be giving lectures and fielding questions each Tu/Th from 11:15am-12:45pm on Blackboard Collaborate.
I’m also posting lectures in non-synchronous format because I also recognize that with the pandemic entering a new phase that some of you may find your schedules changed or facing new personal, work, or family issues. To that end, I have set up the course with a safety net by posting 7-30 minute “Mini-Lecture” videos each week that I recorded last fall when HIST 340 was completely non-synchronous. Each Mini-Lecture covers the IDs (identification terms) that compose the day’s lecture. These videos consist of me giving lectures using Panopto software that allows my face to appear side by side with a PowerPoint presentation. I will release the mini-lectures each week and, once posted, they will be available to students 24/7 so you can watch and take notes at your leisure. Even if you take the course synchronously, those lectures will be there if you miss a course or if you didn’t take good notes and want clarification.
This gives you options. If you want to attend the live, synchronous, interactive lecture, that’s great. If it works better for you to watch the pre-recorded lecture clips, that’s fine too. If you want to alternate between formats, that works also. It’s the same material either way. The biggest difference is that in the synchronous version, you can ask questions and have more of a personal course experience. Choose the option that works best for you. My goal is maximum flexibility to meet your needs during these unusual and trying circumstances.
Online teaching/learning is going to require some patience all around. I haven’t taught a course in an online synchronous format before so we are going to have to work out the “rules” as we go. When I teach in person, I have a very interactive lecture style, where students can ask questions during the lecture and I often pose questions to the class to promote critical thinking. That’s much harder to do given the limitations of the format, which involve me talking into a camera and running a PowerPoint presentation. I’m not sure the best way to preserve the interactive feature. I’m thinking of trying out two-tiered question-asking system. Students who are comfortable jumping in on mic during a pause (or who want to ask an immediate clarifying question) can do that. I’ll also leave the chat window open for written questions. I’m not sure how this will play out or what works best, but I figure that we will find a system that works together through some trial and error.
The course assignments and exams are all non-synchronous. The take-home, essay-based midterm and final exams will be based on the lectures/Mini-Lectures. Everything else will consist of written work based on the course readings. There will be near-weekly “Short Essay” and “Debate” assignments, with the ability to drop your two lowest Short Essay grades (there are seven Short-Essay opportunities, I count your best five) and your lowest Debate (there are six Debate opportunities, I count your best five). This means that you only have to complete FIVE short essay and FIVE debate assignments. If you want to maximize your grade, I suggest completely all the assignments. But you only have to do five each for the Essays and Debates, meaning you can take zeros on two Essays and one Debate.
- Develop skills in critical analysis of historical ideas, arguments, and evidence
- Write cogent, coherent, well organized, and persuasive essays—and gain insights into how you can apply good writing techniques to other courses and projects
- Make strong, clear arguments and support those arguments with effective use of quotations and specific examples from primary and secondary historical sources
- Understand the causes, processes, and outcomes of the various revolution under study
- Comprehend how each revolution represented an internal struggle for power as well as a movement for independence from an imperial authority.
- Appreciate the distinct goals and beliefs that different groups of people brought to each Revolution and comprehend who won and lost when those goals came into conflict.
- Compare and contrast the different revolutions, critically evaluating their similarities and differences and probing the connections between them
- Draw informed and nuanced conclusions about trends and developments within the “Age of Revolution”
The following books will be available for purchase at the campus bookstore:
1) Ray Raphael, Alfred F. Young, Gary Nash, eds., Revolutionary Founders: Rebels, Radicals, and Reformers in the Making of the Nation (Vintage) [Paperback] ISBN-10: 0307455998 | ISBN-13: 978-0307455994
2) William Doyle, The French Revolution: A Very Short Introduction [Paperback] Oxford University Press, ISBN-10: 0192853961 | ISBN-13: 978-0192853967
3) David Geggus, ed. and trans. The Haitian Revolution: A Documentary History. Indianapolis: Hackett Publishing, 2014. 262 pp. ISBN 978-0-87220-865-0
4) John Lynch, Simon Bolivar: A Life (Paperback), Yale University Press, ISBN-13: 978-0300126044
All of these books are (or will be) available at the campus bookstore (except perhaps the Graham book, of which there are plenty of used copies available through internet book sellers. When possible, I have also put a copy of the books on 3-day reserve at the library.
IMPORTANT: The campus bookstore usually only keeps books in stock for the first half of the semester. Consequently, you need to purchase your books early in the semester and, preferably, at the start of the course. I will not accept “the bookstore ran out” as an excuse for missed reading assignments.
(I reserve the right to make changes to the requirements or to the schedule.)
|MIDTERM EXAM:||100 pts. (25% of grade)|
|FINAL EXAM:||100 pts. (25% of grade)|
|SHORT ESSAYS (5 @ 20pts each):||100 pts. (25% of grade)|
|DEBATES (5 @ 20pts each):||100 pts. (25% of grade)|
|TOTAL GRADE:||400 pts.|
At the end of the semester:
360-400 points will be an A
320-359 points will be a B
280-319 points will be a C
240-279 points will be a D
Below 240 points will be an F
Both the midterm and the final exams will be take home and essay based. I will supply the question and you will have a week to complete your essays. Your job is to answer the question and use specific examples and quotes from lectures (mostly) and readings (supplemental) as evidence to demonstrate your case. You can use your lecture and reading notes to answer the questions.
Short Essays: The grade for Short Essays will depend on the quality of your posts to the Blackboard Discussion Board, which I will treat as short papers. There will be SEVEN short essay assignments throughout the semester, each worth twenty points. At the end of the semester, I will drop the TWO lowest grades so that only your FIVE highest scores will count toward your final grade. NOTE: If you elect not to submit one or two of the Short Essay assignments (you can drop two), you are still responsible for having read that material, which may be included in the midterm or final exams.
Each Short Essay will answer a specific question based on the material being read for that particular assignment. I have listed the questions below in the schedule. I will also post them on Blackboard. Your Short Essay will be graded based on the quantity and quality of your response. Each Short Essay must use SPECIFIC EXAMPLES and QUOTATIONS from the readings to support your argument. I will be looking to make sure that your quotations come from THROUGHOUT the reading and not just one or two documents or the beginning parts of a longer document. The postings should be about a page of single-spaced text. Remember to ANSWER the QUESTION rather than just reporting what the reading said. These are analytical essays designed to prove an argument, not “book reports.” Make sure you proofread your posts before you submit them!
To receive full credit, you must submit your posting by on the due dates listed below usually 11:59pm.
I will accept late postings for each unit for reduced credit. If you miss multiple postings, it’s best to start with the most recent one and work your way back to the older ones since I stop deducting points once you have reached 10 points off out of the 20 total points for the assignment (so, after a few weeks being late, you start out with a max potential of 50%).
The “Debates” will serve as the class discussion part of the course. For each debate, students will complete the required readings and then respond to the Debate topic prompt (all of the specific debate requirements and prompts can be found in the unit folders on Blackboard along with the Debate Rubric). There will be SIX debates during the semester worth twenty points each. Only your FIVE highest scores will count toward your course grade. NOTE: If you elect not to submit one of the Debate assignments (you can drop one), you are still responsible for having read that material, which may be included in the midterm or final exams.
Your Debate grade will depend on the quantity and quality of your participation. For each debate, students are required to make at least THREE substantive postings, at least TWO of which must be detailed replies to the postings of other students. I encourage you to make more than three posts. If you post more than three times, they need not all be substantive, meaning you can also include short posts asking questions, looking for clarification from a peer, or making a brief statement to spur debate. The only requirement is that, at some point, you also make at least three longer, substantive posts that include citations to examples and quotes from the readings. The Debate topic prompts ask a wide range of questions to spur discussion, so everyone should be able to find something new to add to an existing discussion or else start a new debate thread on different question when the older conversations have run their course.
Each Debate will have a 96-hour window, running from a Thursday through a Sunday in which students must make all of their posts. You need to make your initial response to the to the debate prompt in the first 48 hours of the debate. This means that you must make (at least) your first substantive posting by 11:59PM on the FRIDAY of the debate window. Then you must make at least two responses to the postings of other students by 11:59 on the SUNDAY of the debate window. You can spread your postings out over the four days, but you MUST must make your first posting within the first 48 hours of the 96-hour debate window and complete two additional posts in response to the postings of other students within the second 48 hours. To receive full credit, students must post throughout that 96-hour window rather than all at the very beginning or, much worse, in the last hour of debate window. The point of the debates is for there to be interaction among students in the course and that means responding to one another’s posts and then replying to the responses from others. If you try to get all your posts done at once, by making three postings as soon as the window opens or (more likely) right before it closes, you are not really engaging in the conversation and are denying yourself and your peers the give-and-take discussion and feedback needed to make the debates a success. For these reasons, I am requiring that you must make your initial substantive posting during the first 48 hours of the debate window and at least two additional substantive postings that are responses to the postings of other students, at least one of which must be in final 48 hours of the debate widow (the other response to a student posting can come during either window..
Although the debates are about expressing your opinions, each of the three required posts for every Debate must include evidence to support your opinions. This will primarily be in the form of specific examples and quotations from the readings. The idea is to show me that you have understood and grappled with the readings by using examples from them as evidence to dramatize the points you’re trying to make. Be sure to explain your examples and ideas with enough depth so that your points are clear and persuasive.
Also, although the requirement is three substantive posts, you do not need to limit yourself to just those three or make every post a substantive one if you do more than three. My goal is to have you reading one another’s ideas and engaging with the course materials and with each other. Any level of engagement with one another is a positive as far as I’m concerned. So, if you read someone’s post and think it’s good but don’t have much to offer, it’s perfectly acceptable (and encouraged) just to say “good point” or “I agree” or “well put” and leave it at that without any further elaboration. Even a short reply gives your classmates some feedback and offers the potential for further discussion as we can see where there seems to be consensus around a topic and where people seem to disagree. That said, I don’t want you to go through the postings and say “That’s great” to every post–that’s as unhelpful as not commenting at all. But, if someone makes a good point, I encourage you to let them know you think they are on the right track. (I would expect that if you disagreed with a post, you would take some time to explain your disagreement and provide evidence to show why you think your position is more persuasive). As long as you make three substantive postings that cite course readings, you are free to engage however you wish (provided it’s relevant and civil) with whatever other entries you make in the debate.
I also encourage you to push one another to refine points and ideas. If you think someone has made too sweeping a generalization, then by all means express your concerns (hopefully backed by examples and quotes from the readings). My hope is that in a civil, evidence-based back-and-forth we can spark critical thinking and see the complexity and contingency in the topics we are studying.
I will grade the Debate postings based on several factors: 1) The length of the combined responses and whether they were submitted throughout the 96-hour window; 2) The mechanics of writing, including clear, logical organization, the use of topic sentences for paragraphs, and proper grammar and spelling; 3) The use of evidence in from of specific examples and quotations from the readings; 4) The critical thinking and analysis displayed by the posts, including the originality of the points made, the level of engagement with course material demonstrated, and the factual accuracy of the posts; and 5) The student’s overall contribution toward creating community, promoting interaction, and observing “netiquette.” All of these elements are spelled out in the Debate Grading Rubric.
How to Cite Documents for Short Essays and Debates:
Use in-paragraph, parenthetical citations to cite specific examples and quotes as evidence for the Discussion Short Essays and Debates. For the reading assignments based on books, simply cite the page number corresponding to the specific example or quote that you are referencing (i.e., “We gained new rights” (187). For the documents on the French Revolution from the amazing website, https://revolution.chnm.org/, cite the item number which you can find in the document URL (i.e., “We gained new rights” (item 135).).
IMPORTANT INFORMATION ON SHORT ESSAYS AND DEBATES:
I require everyone to save a personal copy of all of their discussion postings on their home computer, thumb drive, or whatever other storage device they have. Since Blackboard is occasionally buggy, I HIGHLY suggest that you type out your response with a word processing program and then cut and paste your response into Blackboard. If you have a problem with Blackboard, it is your responsibility to ensure that I receive a copy of your posting by the deadline. DO NOT automatically email me a copy of every posting. ONLY email postings in the event of a Blackboard emergency.
Warning: I consider the Short Essays and Debates to be the most important parts of the course. DO NOT take these assignments lightly. If you put effort into the postings, they are one of the surest ways to boost your grade. If you blow them off, they can kill your grade and result in you failing the course—no matter how well you do on the exams. When I assign final grades at the end of the semester, I always use postings to decide whether to bump up the grades of those on the borderlines. If you have diligently completed your postings, I usually will bump your grade. If you have failed to submit postings or continually submit them late, I WILL NOT BUMP YOUR GRADE even if you are one or two points short of the next grade level.
Getting started on Blackboard: Blackboard is relatively easy to use and will allow you to have access to course materials 24 hours a day, 7 days a week through the Internet. If you have registered for the course, you should automatically be registered on Blackboard. As a UMBC student, you have a personal email account and access to the Internet and through the school’s many on-campus computer labs. You can also access Blackboard off campus through a personal account or from the UMBC dial-up. BEFORE you do anything else, check to see if you are enrolled in the course by going to http://blackboard.umbc.edu. If you have been automatically registered, take some time to explore the Blackboard site for the course. If Blackboard indicates that you are not registered, follow the directions at the main Blackboard site for new users.
I will send all email messages to your UMBC email account through Blackboard (firstname.lastname@example.org). If you do not usually check this account, have messages forwarded to your preferred email address (such as yahoo, gmail, etc.). For help with this procedure, or if you have other questions about UMBC’s Office of Information Technology services visit the OIT helpsite at http://www.umbc.edu/oit/. Helpdesk personnel in the on-campus computer labs can help with most questions. The helpdesk phone number is 410-455-3838.
By enrolling in this course, each student assumes the responsibilities of an active participant in UMBC’s scholarly community in which everyone’s academic work and behavior are held to the highest standards of honesty. Cheating, fabrication, plagiarism, and helping others to commit these acts are all forms of academic dishonesty, and they are wrong. Academic misconduct could result in disciplinary action that may include, but is not limited to, suspension or dismissal. To read the full Student Academic Conduct Policy, consult the UMBC Student Handbook, the Faculty Handbook, or the UMBC Policies section of the UMBC Directory. To read the policy online, see: http://www.umbc.edu/integrity/.
See the UMBC resources on Academic Integrity: https://academicconduct.umbc.edu/plagiarism/
The penalty for academic dishonesty –including plagiarism and other forms of cheating– in any UMBC History Department course is an “F” for the course. In addition, cases of academic dishonesty will be reported to the Academic Conduct Committee.
This course deals with lots of difficult material both in lecture and readings that some people may find hard to read or hear. The era in question and the colonies/countries under consideration here were deeply and violently racist, classist, and sexist places, where all kinds of bigotry flourished. Deep divisions existed over race, gender, class, ethnicity, and religion that were often expressed in horrific ways. All of the colonies/countries were dominated by elite white men who disenfranchised and brutalized people merely based on their class standing, the color of their skin, their gender, or how they worshiped. We will explore such difficult topics as: racism, genocide, slavery, rape, and endemic violence. My lectures always include numerous illustrative quotes that often include racist and misogynistic language from the era. The course readings contain similar and often more graphic language and imagery. I include this material not to titillate, but because I don’t think you can really understand the authoritarian nature of elite rule, white supremacy, and patriarchy in these eras without hearing people from the past speaking for themselves. We also need to understand the condescension, harshness, and brutality to understand why people rebelled and the obstacles different revolutionaries faced. They are also important to understanding the divisions in the revolutionary coalitions and why all of the revolutions ended with elite men trying to restrict the powers of those over whom they ruled.I believe it is important to expose and examine this array of prejudice in its full and awful expressions and to understand how bigotry of various kinds translated into policy and action so that students can appreciate the deep, ugly roots of today’s problems and conflicts. To help students deal with this difficult material, I will include trigger warnings at the start of each lecture when we deal with potentially disturbing subject matter.
OTHER IMPORTANT GENERAL COURSE INFORMATION AND POLICIES ARE LOCATED ON BLACKBOARD
Schedule of Lecture Topics, Exam Dates, and Reading Assignments
The “mini-lectures” are short (usually about 10-20 minute) video presentations that make different points about a larger “Big Picture” topic. In the schedule below, I identify the Big Picture Topic and then list the corresponding mini-lecture video clips underneath. The mini-lectures are each labeled with the Unit and Lecture numbers (i.e. U1L1 for unit 1, lecture 1, U1L2 for unit 1, lecture 2, U3L5 for unit 2, lecture 5, etc.) and the lecture title.
UNIT 1: The American Revolution
Week 1 (Aug. 30- Sept. 5):
Tuesday, Aug. 31
Big Picture Topic: Getting Started
How do we study revolutions? What kinds of comparative categories should we use to compare and contrast different revolutions? How did the “Age of Revolutions” get started?
How do we study multiple revolutions?: We will be comparing four different revolutions? What’s the best way to do that so that we are analyzing the same processes for each and rating them based on shared standards? What categories of the revolutionary process should we make the standard of comparison?
U1L1: The Seven Year’s War: The event that kicked off the Age of Revolution was a war that began on the Virginia frontier that quickly spread into a world war that destabilized the governments throughout the Atlantic basin. How did this happen?
Thursday, Sept. 2
Big Picture Topic: The American Revolution: Causes
What were the causes of the American Revolution? How did the American Revolution unfold? What was the process that led to the break with Great Britain?
U1L2: The Price of Empire: How did British policies after the Seven Year’s designed to make the colonies more profitable and pay for share of their own defense stifle the economy and convince colonists that they were oppressed?
U1L3: Ideological Origins: How did the ideology of “republicanism” and beliefs about constitutional rights encourage American colonists to see British policies as a dangerous and unconstitutional?
WEEK ONE ASSIGNMENTS:
1) Reading: Raphael, et al. eds., Revolutionary Founders, Part 1, Revolutions, p. 1-113.
NOTE: Given that many of you may still be waiting on the arrival of textbooks, I will post a PDF of the first reading assignment to Blackboard.
2) Short Essay #1: For Reading: Raphael, et al. eds., Revolutionary Founders, Part 1, Revolutions, p. 1-113.
Question: What do the lives of these individuals tell us about the role that ordinary Americans played in the origins of the American Revolution? What were the hopes for change these people brought to the cause?
Short Essay #1 is due by 11:59PM on Sunday, Sept. 5
Things to Remember for Assignments:
1) Make an argument that answers the question. Summarize your answer briefly at the start of the post, ideally in a short introductory paragraph.
2) Each paragraph in the body of the post should give part of your answer, each paragraph making a single argument (rather than making multiple arguments). Each paragraph’s argument should be spelled out in the first sentence of the paragraph (the topic sentence).
3) Use specific examples and quotes from the text to prove the argument you make in each paragraph. When there are page numbers from readings, cite your examples and quotes parenthetically (p. 134).
4) Cut and paste your response to the relevant folder on the Blackboard Discussion Board by the due date.
3) Review the Cornell University “Recognizing and Avoiding Plagiarism” website. This cite walks you through what plagiarism is and how to avoid it. It teaches you when you need to cite information from secondary sources and gives examples of acceptable and unacceptable paraphrasing. The site also has a set of quiz-like exercises that provide examples of source material and student writing, asking you to evaluate whether a sample of student writing (compared to the source) represents plagiarism or is an acceptable paraphrase or quote.
Week 2 (Sept. 6-12):
Tuesday, Sept. 7
Big Picture Topic: The American Revolution: Process
How did the American Revolution unfold? What was the process that led to the break with Great Britain?
U1L4: Empire Strikes Back: How did British enforcement of its policies and attempts to assert its dominance over the colonies worsen the colonial crisis?
U1L5: Coercive Acts: How did removing a tax on tea lead to widespread protests and severe retaliation that eventually brought the colonies and Britain to war?
Thursday, Sept. 9
Big Picture Topic: The American Revolution: Ideology and Internal Conflicts
What ideals guided the American Revolution? How did different groups define those ideals? How did those ideals find expression during the Revolution?
U1L6: Organizing Independence: Revolution organized? What the relationship between the elite “leaders” of the Revolution and ordinary Americans?
U1L7: Republicanism: What was the ideology of “republicanism” and how did ordinary and elite Americans tend to define its terms in dramatically different ways?
WEEK TWO ASSIGNMENTS
1) Reading: Raphael, et al. eds., Revolutionary Founders, Part 2, Wars, p. 115-211.
2) Short Essay #2: Question for Raphael, et al. eds., Revolutionary Founders, Part 2, Wars, p. 115-211: What do these essays reveal about how different groups of Americans experienced the War of Independence?
Short Essay #2 is due by 11:59PM on Sunday, Sept. 12
Week 3 (Sept.13-19):
Tuesday, Sept. 14
Big Picture Topic: The American Revolution: Internal Conflicts
How did the process of revolution divide different Americans? What were the sources of conflict? What did the different sides in the conflict want?
U1L8: 1776 State Constitutions: How much did the new 1776 state constitutions democratize government from the colonial ones? How did the differences between the state constitutions reflect divergent expressions of republicanism (some more reflecting the ideals of ordinary Americans, others reflecting elite ideals)?
U1L9: Patriots: Who were the revolutionaries and why did they choose to break with Britain?
U1L10: Loyalists: Who were the Loyalists and why did they decide to remain part of the British empire?
U1L11: The Disaffected: Why did so many Americans refuse to join the Patriot or Loyalist cause and, instead, try to sit out the conflict on the sidelines?
Thursday, Sept. 16
WE WILL NOT MEET SYNCHRONOUSLY TODAY
WATCH LECTURES U1L12 and U1L13 POSTED ON BLACKBOARD IN THE UNIT 1 MINI-LECTURE FOLDER
Big Picture Topic: The American Revolution: War and Counter-Revolution
How did the experiences of the War of Independence shape the process of revolution? Why did counter-revolutions develop against the revolutionary governments on the state and national level? Why did some of these counter-revolutions fail? How did an internal counter-revolution succeed?
U1L12: Revolutionary War: How did the war open up the Revolution and make it more inclusive and democratic?
U1L13: Not-So-Revolutionary War: How did the war undermine the democratic promise of the American Revolution?
WEEK 3 ASSIGNMENTS:
1) Reading: Raphael, et al. eds., Revolutionary Founders, Part 3, The Promise of the Revolution, p. 213-387: CHOOSE FOUR Chapters/Essays (out of the ten in these pages) for your response
2) Debate #1: For Reading: Raphael, et al. eds., Revolutionary Founders, Part 3, The Promise of the Revolution, p. 213-395. (NOTE: Debate #1 also includes last week’s reading).
Debate #1 Question: What do these essays tell us about the outcome of the American Revolution for ordinary Americans? Who won and who lost in the struggle for rights and power in the American Revolution?
Debate #1 Window Opens at 12:01AM on THURSDAY, SEPT. 16
Debate #1 Window Closes at 11:59PM on SUNDAY, SEPT. 19
[REMINDER: You need to make your initial response to the to the debate prompt in the first 48 hours of the debate. This means that you must make (at least) your first substantive posting by 11:59PM on FRIDAY, Sept. 17. Then you must make at least two responses to the postings of other students by 11:59 on SUNDAY, Sept. 19. You can spread your postings out over the four days, but you MUST must make your first posting within the first 48 hours of the 96-hour debate window and complete two additional posts in response to the postings of other students within the second 48 hours.]
Week 4 (Sept. 20-26):
Tuesday, Sept. 21
Big Picture Topic: The American Revolution: Counter Revolution and Outcome (Winners and Losers)
Why did counter-revolutions develop against the revolutionary governments on the state and national level? Why did some of these counter-revolutions fail? How did an internal counter-revolution succeed? What were the end results of the American Revolution? Who were its winners and losers?
U1L14: Gospel of Moneyed Men: How did the Revolutionary elite try to reverse some of the democratic gains of the Revolution and attempt to concentrate economic and political power in their own hands?
U1L15: “Barrier Against Democracy”: How and why did the founding elite remake governments to consolidate their authority, including stripping important powers from the states and placing them in a new centralized national government?
Thursday, Sept. 23
Big Picture Topic: American Revolution: Outcome (Winners and Losers)
What were the end results of the American Revolution? Who were its winners and losers?
U1L16: White Man’s Democracy: How did ordinary white men gain political rights with the Revolution but lose economic power?
U1L17: Revolution for Slaves?: To what extent did Northern and Southern enslaved people experience any benefits from the American Revolution?
WEEK FOUR ASSIGNMENTS:
Reading: Doyle, The French Revolution, ALL
Debate #2: For Reading Doyle, The French Revolution, ALL
Debate #2 Question: Use Doyle’s short survey of the French Revolution to make some broad comparisons between the French and American Revolutions (with most of your focus on the French Revolution and the Doyle book). Frame those comparisons around our main analytical categories: Causes, Process, Divisions, Ideology, War, Counter Revolutions, and Outcomes. What are the clearest similarities as far as these categories go? What categories see most dissimilar? [Note: This question is similar to the one I will ask for the Midterm Exam].
Debate #2 Window Opens at 12:01AM on THURSDAY, SEPT. 23
Debate #2 Window Closes at 11:59PM on SUNDAY, SEPT. 26
[REMINDER: You need to make your initial response to the to the debate prompt in the first 48 hours of the debate. This means that you must make (at least) your first substantive posting by 11:59PM on FRIDAY, Sept. 24. Then you must make at least two responses to the postings of other students by 11:59 on SUNDAY, Sept. 26. You can spread your postings out over the four days, but you MUST must make your first posting within the first 48 hours of the 96-hour debate window and complete two additional posts in response to the postings of other students within the second 48 hours.]
Week 5 (Sept. 27- Oct. 3):
Tuesday, Sept. 28
Big Picture Topic: American Revolution: Outcome (Winners and Losers)
What were the end results of the American Revolution? Who were its winners and losers?
U1L18: Revolution for Women?: To what extent did women (and especially white women) in America experience a revolution during the American Revolution? The French Revolution
U1L19: Revolution for Indians?: How did the American Revolution work out poorly for Indian peoples regardless of which side they chose?
Unit 2: The French Revolution
Thursday, Sept. 30
Big Picture Topic: The French Revolution: Causes
What were the long and short-term causes of the French Revolution? Why did many French subjects have a problem with “Absolute Monarchy” under Louis XVI and resent the privileges enjoyed by the clergy and nobility?
U2L1: (Not So) Absolute Monarchy: How were the king’s powers (and lack thereof) a primary cause of the French Revolution?
U2L2: Challenging Monarchy: How was absolute monarchy being challenged even before the French Revolution?
WEEK FIVE ASSIGNMENTS:
1) Reading: Documents on the Social Causes of the French Revolution:
Link to Documents: http://chnm.gmu.edu/revolution/exhibits/show/liberty–equality–fraternity/social-causes-of-revolution.
(This is a link to the outstanding Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity: Exploring the French Revolution website. The “chapter” for “Social Causes of the Revolution” provides background context with links to documents and images on the left margins. You should read the text AND the accompanying documents and images on the left).
2) Short Essay #3: Question: Using the documents and images from the “Social Causes of the Revolution” chapter as evidence (NOT the chapter or documents introductions), answer the following question: What were the main causes of the French Revolution?
Short Essay #3 is due by 11:59 on Sunday, Oct. 3.
Week 6 (Oct. 4-10):
Tuesday, Oct. 5
Big Picture Topic: French Revolution: Causes and Process
What caused the French Revolution? How did the French Revolution unfold? Why did its goals change from reforming the monarchy to abolishing it? How did the French Revolution divide the citizenry? What effect did those divisions have on the course of the Revolution?
U1L3: Privileged Estates: What was the relationship between slavery and racism in early America? How did the decision to switch from indentured servitude to slavery lead the gentry to try to use racism to divide Black and white Virginians?
U2L4: The Estates-General: How did the king’s progressive tax proposals lead to the end of absolute monarchy as well as legal and customary privileges for the clergy and nobility?
Thursday, Oct. 7
Big Picture Topic: French Revolution: Process and Divisions
How did the French Revolution unfold? Why did its goals change from reforming the monarchy to abolishing it? How did the French Revolution divide the citizenry? What effect did those divisions have on the course of the Revolution?
U2L5: National Assembly: How did the first government created by the French Revolution, the National Assembly, reveal existing divisions in the revolutionary coalition and create new ones among different groups of revolutionaries?
U2L6: Civil Constitution of the Clergy: How did the National Assembly attempt to reform the church and religion? Why were some reforms accepted and others extremely divisive?
WEEK SIX ASSIGNMENTS:
1) Reading: Documents on the Enlightenment and Human Rights and the French Revolution
Link to Documents: http://chnm.gmu.edu/revolution/exhibits/show/liberty–equality–fraternity/enlightenment-and-human-rights (Read the first document in the left margin (“Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen”), skip the documents before 1789 and scroll down and start reading again with the “Petition of Women of the Third Estate to the King” and then read all the subsequent documents in this chapter.
2) Debate #3 Question: Using the documents and images from the “Enlightenment and Human Rights” chapter as evidence (NOT the chapter or documents introductions), answer the following question: What were the primary ideals of the French Revolution and how well were they expressed through the in new governments and laws?
Debate #3 Window Opens at 12:01AM on THURSDAY, OCT 7
Debate #3 Window Closes at 11:59PM on SUNDAY, OCT 10
[REMINDER: You need to make your initial response to the to the debate prompt in the first 48 hours of the debate. This means that you must make (at least) your first substantive posting by 11:59PM on FRIDAY, Oct. 8. Then you must make at least two responses to the postings of other students by 11:59 on SUNDAY, Oct. 10. You can spread your postings out over the four days, but you MUST must make your first posting within the first 48 hours of the 96-hour debate window and complete two additional posts in response to the postings of other students within the second 48 hours.]
Week 7 (Oct.11-17):
Tuesday, Oct. 12
Big Picture Topic: The French Revolution: Ideology and War
What ideals guided the French Revolution? How did those ideals find expression in France’s new revolutionary governments? How did the outbreak of war, both external and civil, shape the course of the French Revolution?
U2L7: Levée En Masse: How did war push revolutionaries to open up power and rights for ordinary citizens?
U2L8: The Terror: How did fighting multiple wars at once create a culture of fear of external and internal enemies that drove the revolution away from its promised protections of civil liberties?
Thursday, Oct. 14
Big Picture Topic: French Revolution: Counter Revolution
Why did counter-revolutions develop in France? Why did the first set of counter-revolutions fail? How did an internal counter-revolution led by Napoleon succeed?
U2L9: Thermidor: What was Thermidor? How did the new government under the Directory scale back the Revolution?
U2L10: Napoleon: How did Napoleon end the French Revolution?
WEEK SEVEN ASSIGNMENTS
1) Reading: Documents on the Women and the French Revolution
Link to Documents: http://chnm.gmu.edu/revolution/exhibits/show/liberty–equality–fraternity/women-and-the-revolution (Documents and links on the left margin. Start with “Petition of Women of the Third Estate” and read all the subsequent documents).
2) Short Essay #4: Question: Using the documents and images from the “Women and the Revolution” chapter as evidence (NOT the chapter or documents introductions), answer the following question: What did women want from the French Revolution and what issues relating to women were discussed as part of the debates over rights and power?
Short Essay #4 is due by 11:59PM on Sunday, Oct. 17.
Week 8 (Oct. 18-24):
Tuesday, Oct. 19
Big Picture Topic: French Revolution: Outcome
What were the end results of the French Revolution? Who were its winners and losers?
U2L11: Declaration of Rights of Man and Citizen: Who won and lost from the French Revolution?
Thursday, Oct. 21
MIDTERM EXAM (TAKE HOME)
Midterm Exam (Units 1 and 2) will be due by 11:59PM on Friday, Oct. 29. The exam will cover all of the Unit 1 lectures (U1L1 to U1L18) and Unit 2 (U2L1 to U2L12). The exam will be a take-home, essay-based exam where you will answer a question using your lecture and reading notes as evidence to support your arguments. I will release the exam question and more specific instructions at 5:00PM on Blackboard on Tuesday, Oct. 19.
UNIT 3: The Haitian Revolution
Week 9 (Oct. 25-31):
Tuesday, Oct. 26
Big Picture Topic: The Haitian Revolution: Causes
What were the long-term and immediate causes of the Haitian Revolution?
U3L1: The Foot of Vesuvius: How was the harsh form of slavery on Saint-Domingue the long-term cause of the Haitian Revolution?
U3L2: Gens de Couleur: Who were the Gens de Couleur and how did they spark the Haitian Revolution (by mistake)?
Thursday, Oct. 28
Big Picture Topic: The Haitian Revolution: Process/Internal Divisions/War/Ideology
How did existing divisions in Saint-Domingue shape its revolution? How did the protests become of revolution to end slavery? How did war create new divisions and conflicts?
U3L3: War of Extermination: How did civil war between Gens de Couleur and the Grand and Petit Blancs of Saint Dominue create an opening for slaves to pursue their own freedom?
U3L4: Sonthonax: How did the French attempt to put down the slave rebellion turn into France emancipating the slaves of Saint-Domingue to put down a rebellion of the white population?
Week 10 (Nov. 1-7):
Tuesday, Nov. 2
Big Picture Topic: The Haitian Revolution: Internal Divisions/War/Ideology
How did war expand the Revolution and also start a counter-revolution that would limit it’s scope?
U3L5: Toussaint Louverture: How did Toussaint Louverture become the leader of a nearly-independent republic of former slaves?
U3L6: Preparing for Independence: How did Toussaint Louverture attempt to consolidate his own power in the name of securing slave freedom and Saint-Domingue independence?
Thursday, Nov. 4
Big Picture Topic: The Haitian Revolution: Counter-Revolution and Ideology
How did a counter-revolution by Napoleon revive the revolution of the enslaved and (temporarily) heal the divisions between slaves and Gens de Couleur?
U3L7: Napoleon’s Revenge: How did Napoleon launch an (initially) successful counter-revolution to take back Saint-Domingue?
U3L8: War of Colors: How the return of French rule lead to an all out war for control of Saint Domingue that became a race war that pit slaves and Gens de Couleur against white French soldiers and the Grand and Petit Blancs?
WEEK TEN ASSIGNMENTS:
1) Reading: Geggus, ed., The Haitian Revolution, introduction, chapters 1-5
2) Short Essay #5: Question: Use the documents (NOT the introduction or chapter introductions) in chapters 1-5 to answer the following questions: What were the causes of the revolution in Saint-Domingue? How effectively did the stages of the Revolution covered in these chapters address those factors?
Short Essay #5 is due by 11:59PM on Friday, Nov. 5.
Week 11 (Nov. 8-14):
Tuesday, Nov. 9
Big Picture Topic: The Haitian Revolution: Counter Revolutions and Outcomes
How did an internal counter-revolution succeed in scaling back the revolution? What were the end results of the Haitian Revolution? Who were its winners and losers?
U3L9: “Not Liberty”: Who were the winners and losers of the Haitian Revolution?
UNIT 4: Latin American Revolutions
Thursday, Nov. 11
Big Picture Topic: Latin American Revolutions: Causes
What were the causes of the Latin American Revolutions?
U4L1: Vice Royal Casta: How the structure of the Spanish colonies in the Americas serve as a cause of the American Revolution? How did calls for free trade and rights for Creoles turn into a series of independence movements?
U4L2: Who Rules Spain?: How did the end of the French Revolution spark the beginning of independence movements in Latin American?
WEEK ELEVEN ASSIGNMENTS:
1) Reading: Geggus, ed., The Haitian Revolution, chapters 6-10
2) Debate #4: Question: Use the documents (NOT the introduction or chapter introductions) in chapters 6-10 to assess the rights and position of slaves as a result of the Haitian Revolution. In terms of rights and position, what was the high point of the Haitian Revolution? How revolutionary was the Haitian Revolution at its conclusion?
Debate #4 Window Opens at 12:01AM on THURSDAY, NOV. 11
Debate #4 Window Closes at 11:59PM on SUNDAY, NOV. 14
[REMINDER: You need to make your initial response to the to the debate prompt in the first 48 hours of the debate. This means that you must make (at least) your first substantive posting by 11:59PM on FRIDAY, Nov. 12. Then you must make at least two responses to the postings of other students by 11:59 on SUNDAY, Nov. 14. You can spread your postings out over the four days, but you MUST must make your first posting within the first 48 hours of the 96-hour debate window and complete two additional posts in response to the postings of other students within the second 48 hours.]
Week 12 (Nov. 15-21):
Tuesday, Nov. 16
Big Picture Topic: Latin American Revolutions: Process
How did the cause of the Latin American Revolutions spread?
U4L3: Mask of Fernando: What was the “Mask of Fernando”? And how did the Spanish American Juntas use it to rally support for independence?
U4L4: Father Hidalgo’s Dream: How did a Catholic priest become the “Father of Mexican Independence? How did the Hidalgo uprising demonstrate the social divisions within New Spain?
Thursday, Nov. 18
Big Picture Topic: Latin American Revolutions: Process
How were the Latin American Revolutions organized? Why did they take such radically different paths?
U4L5: The Hidalgo Revolution: How did Father Hidalgo start a bottom-up Revolution in central Mexico? What problems did that revolution face?
U4L6: (Failed) Republics of Venezuela: How did divisions between Criollos and castas cause the failure of the first two Venezuela republics?
WEEK TWELVE ASSIGNMENTS:
No new reading!: This assignment is based on documents you have already read for previous Short Essays and Debates. What I want you to do here is to synthesize your previous work into an argument that compares the French and Haitian Revolutions using documents as evidence.
Debate #5: Question: Use the documents from the French Revolution website and the Geggus, ed., The Haitian Revolution book that we used for previous assignments as evidence for your answer to the question: Which revolution was more revolutionary: the French or the Haitian?
Debate #5 Window Opens at 12:01AM on THURSDAY, NOV. 18
Debate #5 Window Closes at 11:59PM on SUNDAY, NOV. 21
[REMINDER: You need to make your initial response to the to the debate prompt in the first 48 hours of the debate. This means that you must make (at least) your first substantive posting by 11:59PM on FRIDAY, Nov. 17. Then you must make at least two responses to the postings of other students by 11:59 on SUNDAY, Nov. 19. You can spread your postings out over the four days, but you MUST must make your first posting within the first 48 hours of the 96-hour debate window and complete two additional posts in response to the postings of other students within the second 48 hours.]
Week 13 (Nov. 22-28):
Tuesday, Nov. 22
Big Picture Topic: Internal Conflict and War in the Latin American Revolutions
How did internal divisions shape the Latin American revolutions? How did the wars of independence in Latin America shape the course of the revolutions? How did war push conservative leaders to accept democratic reforms?
U4L7: The (Un)Desired One: How did the return to the Spanish throne of Fernando VII (“The Desired One”) trigger a new wave of independence movements?
U4L8: Army of the Three Guarantees: How did the independence movements in New Spain (Mexico) finally solve its problem of Criollo/castas division?
Thursday, Nov. 24
WEEK THIRTEEN ASSIGNMENTS:
1) Reading: Lynch, Simon Bolivar, 1-90
2) Short Essay #6: Question: What caused the Latin American Revolutions? Why did Simon Bolivar get involved? How did his views of the revolution change as the struggle intensified?
Short Essay #6 is due by 11:59PM on MONDAY, Nov. 29.
Week 14 (Nov. 29- Dec. 5):
Tuesday, Nov. 30
Big Picture Topic: Latin American Revolutions: Divisions, War, and Ideology
What ideologies guided the Latin American Revolutions? How did those ideologies find expression in the revolutionary armies?
U4L9: Bolivar in Exile: What was Bolivar’s new plan for liberating Spanish America? Why did it almost fail because of the enduring split between Criollo and castas?
U4L10: Bolivar’s Piar Problem: Who was Manuel Piar and how did he threaten Bolivar’s plan for independence? How did Bolivar’s solution to the problem make things even worse?
U4L11: Bolivar’s Llaneros Army: How did Bolivar recruit the Pardo Llaneros Army that would ultimately win independence?
Thursday, Dec. 2
Big Picture Topic: Latin American Revolutions: Ideology and Counter Revolutions
When independence was won, why did revolutionary leaders retreat from the democratic promises of the revolutions?
U4L12: Army of the Andes: How did an Argentinian general in Spain assemble a casta army and become the “Protector of Peru”?
U4L13: Liberator vs Protector: Despite offering concessions to the castas, how did the shared vision for South America held by San Martin and Bolviar form a dictatorial counter revolution?
WEEK FOURTEEN ASSIGNMENTS:
1) Reading: Lynch, Simon Bolivar, 91-196
2) Short Essay #7: Question: How did the long and brutal wars of independence change the nature of the Latin American revolutions?
Short Essay #7 is due by 11:59PM on Monday, Dec. 6
Week 15 (Dec. 6 – Dec. 12):
Tuesday, Dec. 7
Big Picture Topic: Latin American Revolutions: Counter-Revolution and Outcome
Why did the Latin American Revolutions end in dictatorships and little freedom for most people?
U4L14: Dictators and Caudillos: Why were the Latin American governments after independence a series of dictators and region warlords (caudillos)?
U4L15 Latin American Independence?: Why did independent Latin America enjoy so little actual independence?
U4L16 Casta Freedom?: How independent did independence leave most ordinary people in Latin America?
Thursday, Dec. 9
The Age of Revolution (Reverberations and Other Revolutions that Failed): How far did the wave of revolution spread across the Atlantic? Why did numerous other revolutions and uprisings in the era fail?
WEEK 15 ASSIGNMENTS:
1) Reading: Lynch, Simon Bolivar, 197-304
2) Debate #6: Question: What were the achievements and limits of the Latin American Revolutions in terms of providing rights and freedoms for the various peoples of Latin America?
Debate #6 Window Opens at 12:01AM on FRIDAY, DEC. 10
Debate #6 Window Closes at 11:59PM on MONDAY, DEC. 13
[REMINDER: You need to make your initial response to the to the debate prompt in the first 48 hours of the debate. This means that you must make (at least) your first substantive posting by 11:59PM on SATURDAY, Dec. 11. Then you must make at least two responses to the postings of other students by 11:59 on MONDAY, Dec. 13. You can spread your postings out over the four days, but you MUST must make your first posting within the first 48 hours of the 96-hour debate window and complete two additional posts in response to the postings of other students within the second 48 hours.]