HIST 315: Native American History, 1800 to Present

HIST 315: Native American History, 1800-Present

Spring 2021

Professor Terry Bouton
Phone: 410-455-2056
Email: bouton[at]umbc.edu 
Office Hours: By Email or Online Appointment

Course Webpage:
*I would advise book-marking this page since it has links to all the documents and assignments*
Course Meeting Place: Online
Course Meeting Time: Asynchronous

Course Description:
This course is a survey of Native American history from the end of the American Revolution to the present that explores how Indian peoples confronted the many challenges of the last several centuries. It traces how Native Americans responded to often hostile US Indian policy, massive economic and cultural change, and radical transformations of their societies. Students learn how Indian peoples struggled to preserve traditional ways even as they adapted to an ever-modernizing America.

1) Peter Nabokov, ed., Two Leggings: The Making of a Crow Warrior
2) David Grann, Killers of the Flower Moon: The Osage Murders and the Birth of the FBI

3) Mary Crow Dog, Lakota Woman
4) David Treuer, Rez Life

IMPORTANT: The campus bookstore usually only keeps books in stock for the first half of the semester.  Consequently, you need to purchase your books early in the semester and, preferably, at the start of the course.  I will not accept “the bookstore ran out” as an excuse for missed reading assignments.

I reserve the right to make changes to the requirements or to the schedule.

(I reserve the right to make changes to the requirements or to the schedule.)

MIDTERM EXAM:100 pts. (25% of grade)
FINAL EXAM:100 pts. (25% of grade)
SHORT ESSAYS (5 @ 20pts each):100  pts. (25% of grade)
DEBATES (5 @ 20pts each):100 pts. (25% of grade)
TOTAL GRADE:400 pts.

At the end of the semester:
360-400 points will be an A
320-359 points will be a B
280-319 points will be a C

240-279 points will be a D
Below 240 points will be an F

Both the midterm and the final exams will be take home and essay based. I will supply the question and you will have a week to complete your essays. Your job is to answer the question and use specific examples and quotes from lectures (mostly) and readings (supplemental) as evidence to demonstrate your case. You can use your lecture and reading notes to answer the questions. The exams are not cumulative.

Short Essays: The grade for Short Essays will depend on the quality of your posts to the Blackboard Discussion Board, which I will treat as short papers. There will be SIX short essay assignments throughout the semester, each worth twenty points. At the end of the semester, I will drop the lowest grade so that only your FIVE highest scores will count toward your final grade. NOTE: If you elect not to submit one or two of the Short Essay assignments (you can drop two), you are still responsible for having read that material, which may be included in the midterm or final exams.

Each Short Essay will answer a specific question based on the material being read for that particular assignment. I have listed the questions below in the schedule.  I will also post them on Blackboard. Your Short Essay will be graded based on the quantity and quality of your response. Each Short Essay must use SPECIFIC EXAMPLES and QUOTATIONS from the readings to support your argument. I will be looking to make sure that your quotations come from THROUGHOUT the reading and not just one or two documents or the beginning parts of a longer document. The postings should be about a page of single-spaced text. Remember to ANSWER the QUESTION rather than just reporting what the reading said.  These are analytical essays designed to prove an argument, not “book reports.” Make sure you proofread your posts before you submit them!

To receive full credit, you must submit your posting by on the due dates listed below usually 11:59pm

Late Postings:
I will accept late postings for each unit for reduced credit. If you miss multiple postings, it’s best to start with the most recent one and work your way back to the older ones since I stop deducting points once you have reached 10 points off out of the 20 total points for the assignment (so, after a few weeks being late, you start out with a max potential of 50%).

The “Debates” will serve as the class discussion part of the course. For each debate, students will complete the required readings and then respond to the Debate topic prompt (all of the specific debate requirements and prompts can be found in the unit folders on Blackboard along with the Debate Rubric). There will be SIX debates during the semester worth twenty points each. Only your FIVE highest scores will count toward your course grade. NOTE: If you elect not to submit one of the Debate assignments (you can drop one), you are still responsible for having read that material, which may be included in the midterm or final exams.

Your Debate grade will depend on the quantity and quality of your participation. For each debate, students are required to make at least THREE substantive postings, at least TWO of which must be detailed replies to the postings of other students. I encourage you to make more than three posts. If you post more than three times, they need not all be substantive, meaning you can also include short posts asking questions, looking for clarification from a peer, or making a brief statement to spur debate. The only requirement is that, at some point, you also make at least three longer, substantive posts that include citations to examples and quotes from the readings. The Debate topic prompts ask a wide range of questions to spur discussion, so everyone should be able to find something new to add to an existing discussion or else start a new debate thread on different question when the older conversations have run their course.

Each Debate will have a 96-hour window, running from a Thursday through a Sunday in which students must make all of their posts. You need to make your initial response to the to the debate prompt in the first 48 hours of the debate. This means that you must make (at least) your first substantive posting by 11:59PM on the FRIDAY of the debate window. Then you must make at least two responses to the postings of other students by 11:59 on the SUNDAY of the debate window. You can spread your postings out over the four days, but you MUST must make your first posting within the first 48 hours of the 96-hour debate window and complete two additional posts in response to the postings of other students within the second 48 hours. To receive full credit, students must post throughout that 96-hour window rather than all at the very beginning or, much worse, in the last hour of debate window. The point of the debates is for there to be interaction among students in the course and that means responding to one another’s posts and then replying to the responses from others. If you try to get all your posts done at once, by making three postings as soon as the window opens or (more likely) right before it closes, you are not really engaging in the conversation and are denying yourself and your peers the give-and-take discussion and feedback needed to make the debates a success. For these reasons, I am requiring that you must make your initial substantive posting during the first 48 hours of the debate window and at least two additional substantive postings that are responses to the postings of other students, at least one of which must be in final 48 hours of the debate widow (the other response to a student posting can come during either window..

Although the debates are about expressing your opinions, each of the three required posts for every Debate must include evidence to support your opinions. This will primarily be in the form of specific examples and quotations from the readings. The idea is to show me that you have understood and grappled with the readings by using examples from them as evidence to dramatize the points you’re trying to make. Be sure to explain your examples and ideas with enough depth so that your points are clear and persuasive.

Also, although the requirement is three substantive posts, you do not need to limit yourself to just those three or make every post a substantive one if you do more than three. My goal is to have you reading one another’s ideas and engaging with the course materials and with each other. Any level of engagement with one another is a positive as far as I’m concerned. So, if you read someone’s post and think it’s good but don’t have much to offer, it’s perfectly acceptable (and encouraged) just to say “good point” or “I agree” or “well put” and leave it at that without any further elaboration. Even a short reply gives your classmates some feedback and offers the potential for further discussion as we can see where there seems to be consensus around a topic and where people seem to disagree. That said, I don’t want you to go through the postings and say “That’s great” to every post–that’s as unhelpful as not commenting at all. But, if someone makes a good point, I encourage you to let them know you think they are on the right track. (I would expect that if you disagreed with a post, you would take some time to explain your disagreement and provide evidence to show why you think your position is more persuasive). As long as you make three substantive postings that cite course readings, you are free to engage however you wish (provided it’s relevant and civil) with whatever other entries you make in the debate.

I also encourage you to push one another to refine points and ideas. If you think someone has made too sweeping a generalization, then by all means express your concerns (hopefully backed by examples and quotes from the readings). My hope is that in a civil, evidence-based back-and-forth we can spark critical thinking and see the complexity and contingency in the topics we are studying.

I will grade the Debate postings based on several factors: 1) The length of the combined responses and whether they were submitted throughout the 96-hour window; 2) The mechanics of writing, including clear, logical organization, the use of topic sentences for paragraphs, and proper grammar and spelling; 3) The use of evidence in from of specific examples and quotations from the readings; 4) The critical thinking and analysis displayed by the posts, including the originality of the points made, the level of engagement with course material demonstrated, and the factual accuracy of the posts; and 5) The student’s overall contribution toward creating community, promoting interaction, and observing “netiquette.” All of these elements are spelled out in the Debate Grading Rubric.

How to Cite Documents for Postings and Debates:
Use in-paragraph, parenthetical citations to cite specific examples and quotes as evidence for the Discussion Postings and Debates. For the reading assignments based on books, simply cite the page number corresponding to the specific example or quote that you are referencing (i.e., “They took our land” (187). For films, cite the time stamp of the evidence you are citing in parenthesis.


I require everyone to save a personal copy of all of their discussion postings on their home computer, thumb drive, or whatever other storage device they have.  Since Blackboard is occasionally buggy, I HIGHLY suggest that you type out your response with a word processing program and then cut and paste your response into Blackboard. If you have a problem with Blackboard, it is your responsibility to ensure that I receive a copy of your posting by the deadline. DO NOT automatically email me a copy of every posting.  ONLY email postings in the event of a Blackboard emergency.

Warning: I consider the Short Essays and Debates to be the most important parts of the course. DO NOT take these assignments lightly. If you put effort into the postings, they are one of the surest ways to boost your grade. If you blow them off, they can kill your grade and result in you failing the course—no matter how well you do on the exams. When I assign final grades at the end of the semester, I always use postings to decide whether to bump up the grades of those on the borderlines. If you have diligently completed your postings, I usually will bump your grade. If you have failed to submit postings or continually submit them late, I WILL NOT BUMP YOUR GRADE even if you are one or two points short of the next grade level.

Getting started on Blackboard: Blackboard is relatively easy to use and will allow you to have access to course materials 24 hours a day, 7 days a week through the Internet.  If you have registered for the course, you should automatically be registered on Blackboard. As a UMBC student, you have a personal email account and access to the Internet and through the school’s many on-campus computer labs.  You can also access Blackboard off campus through a personal account or from the UMBC dial-up.  BEFORE you do anything else, check to see if you are enrolled in the course by going to http://blackboard.umbc.edu.  If you have been automatically registered, take some time to explore the Blackboard site for the course.  If Blackboard indicates that you are not registered, follow the directions at the main Blackboard site for new users.

I will send all email messages to your UMBC email account through Blackboard 
(yourusername@umbc.edu). If you do not usually check this account, have messages forwarded to your preferred email address (such as yahoo, gmail, etc.). For help with this procedure, or if you have other questions about UMBC’s Office of Information Technology services visit the OIT helpsite at http://www.umbc.edu/oit/. Helpdesk personnel in the on-campus computer labs can help with most questions. The helpdesk phone number is 410-455-3838.

Academic Integrity:
By enrolling in this course, each student assumes the responsibilities of an active participant in UMBC’s scholarly community in which everyone’s academic work and behavior are held to the highest standards of honesty. Cheating, fabrication, plagiarism, and helping others to commit these acts are all forms of academic dishonesty, and they are wrong.  Academic misconduct could result in disciplinary action that may include, but is not limited to, suspension or dismissal.  To read the full Student Academic Conduct Policy, consult the UMBC Student Handbook, the Faculty Handbook, or the UMBC Policies section of the UMBC Directory. To read the policy online, see: http://www.umbc.edu/integrity/.

See the UMBC resources on Academic Integrity: https://academicconduct.umbc.edu/plagiarism/

The penalty for academic dishonesty –including plagiarism and other forms of cheating– in any UMBC History Department course is an “F” for the course. In addition, cases of academic dishonesty will be reported to the Academic Conduct Committee.

Trigger Warnings:
This course deals with lots of difficult material both in lecture and readings that some people may find hard to read or hear. The era in question was a deeply and violently racist, classist, and sexist place, where all kinds of bigotry flourished. Deep divisions existed over race, gender, class, ethnicity, and religion that were often expressed in horrific ways. We will explore such difficult topics as: racism, genocide, slavery, rape, and endemic violence. My lectures always include numerous illustrative quotes that often include racist and misogynistic language from the era. The course readings contain similar and often more graphic language and imagery. I include this material not to titillate, but because I don’t think you can really understand the authoritarian nature of elite rule, white supremacy, and patriarchy without hearing people from the past speaking for themselves. We also need to understand this condescension, harshness, and brutality to understand why Indian peoples resisted and sometimes rebelled and the obstacles their efforts faced. They are also important to understanding the divisions among indigenous Americans and why they sometimes participated in US efforts to defeat or disempower other Indian peoples. I believe it is important to expose and examine this array of prejudice in its full and awful expressions and to understand how bigotry of various kinds translated into policy and action so that students can appreciate the deep, ugly roots of today’s problems and conflicts. To help students deal with this difficult material, I will include trigger warnings at the start of each lecture when we deal with potentially disturbing subject matter.


Schedule of Lectures, Exams, Readings, Discussions, and Assignments 

Unit 1: Accommodating and Resisting the “New Order of Things,” 1800-1860

Week 1 (Jan. 26-31):
Big Topic: The First US Indian Policy: Taking Land through War and Peace

U1L1: A Revolution for Indians?: What role did Native peoples play the American Revolution? How did the Revolution and War for Independence affect Indian societies?

U1L2: Origins of the Plan of Civilization: Why did the US seek a new Indian policy around 1800?

U1L3: “The Plan of Civilization”: What was the Plan of Civilization and how it propose to “save” Indians and get their lands at the same time?

Week 2 (Feb. 1-7):
Big Topic: Accommodating and Resisting the New Order

U1L4: New Order on the Reservations: How did the Plan of Civilization change life on reservations bordering the US?

U1L5: Cornplanter and Handsome Lake: Who were Cornplanter and Handsome Lake and how did they represent accommodation with the new order?

U1L6: The Shawnee Prophet: Who was the Shawnee Prophet and what was his message of resistance?

U1L7: Tecumseh: Who was Tecumseh and how did he try to build the Shawnee Prophet’s vision into a pan-Indian movement from the Great Lakes to the Gulf of Mexico?

U1L8: Red Stick War: What was the Red Stick War and how did it symbolize the limits of resistance?


Read: A Narrative of the Life of Mrs. Mary Jemison (all)

You can access the Narrative for free online.  Here are several locations:

Short Essay #1 for A Narrative of the Life of Mrs. Mary Jemison (all): Question: What do Mary Jemison’s experiences among the Seneca Indians during and after the American Revolution tell us about life for Native Americans in the New Republic?
(Due by 11:59PM on Friday, Feb. 5).

Week 3 (Feb. 8-14):
Big Topic: Indian Removal

U1L9: Andrew Jackson and the Indians: How and why did Andrew Jackson push for the removal of the eastern Indians to reservations in the Oklahoma and Nebraska territories?

U1L10: John Ross: Who was John Ross and why did he oppose Cherokee Removal?

U1L11: The Treaty Party: What was the Treaty Party and why did its members support Removal?

U1L12 Trail of Tears: What was the Trail of Tears?


Watch: Documentary Film: American Experience, We Shall Remain, Episode 3, The Trail of Tears (2009):

https://video-alexanderstreet-com.proxy-bc.researchport.umd.edu/watch/we-shall-remain-trail-of-tears (You need to log into MyUMBC to access streaming video)


Debate #1 Assessing Cherokee Removal and the Treaty Party: What should the Cherokee have done in the face of removal efforts by the federal government and the efforts against them by states like Georgia? Did the Treaty Party have a point?
Debate #1 Window Opens at 12:01am on Thursday, Feb. 11 and closes at 11:59PM on Sunday, Feb. 14.

UNIT 2: The Rise and Fall of the Plains Indians

Week 4 (Feb. 15-21):
Big Topic: Indian Empires on the Plains

U2L1: Rise of the Sioux:  How did the Sioux come to dominate the plains at the same time that other Indian peoples were being defeated and removed?

U2L2: Comanche Empire: How did the Comanche Indians become a regional power and how they preserve power against other Indians, the US, and Spanish/Mexican governments?

U2L3: Crow Women: What place did women have in a Crow society?

U2L4: Pioneer Invasion: How did US westward expansion complicate the lives of the plains Indians?

Reading: Two Leggings: the Making of Crow Warrior, 1-100

Here is a digital version of the book (warning: it’s not very reader friendly): https://archive.org/stream/twoleggingsthema008451mbp/twoleggingsthema008451mbp_djvu.txt

Short Essay #2 for Two Leggings: the Making of Crow Warrior, 1-100: Question: Why did Two Leggings want to be a warrior and what steps did he have to take to make himself into one?
(DUE by 11:59PM on Friday, Feb. 19).

Week 5 (Feb. 22-28):
Big Topic: Conquering the Plains

U2L5: Buffalo Runners: Who were Buffalo Runners and how did they reshape the western plains?

U2L6: Peace Policy (1869-1886): What was the “Peace Policy” and how did the US use it to try to subdue the Indians of the plains?

U2L7: The Crow and the Peace Policy: Why did the Crow submit to the Peace Policy and what did they get for their accommodation?

U2L8: Treaties of Fort Laramie: How did the Treaties of Fort Laramie represent the success of resistance yet also contain the seeds of it’s ultimate failure?

Read: Two Leggings: the Making of Crow Warrior, 101-197

Debate #2 for Two Leggings (all): Based on Two Leggings’ memoir, develop three rules of Crow society. After everyone has posted their rules (By the end of Day 2 of the Debate), I will put together a complete list. Use the last 2 days to debate the order of importance to the Crow of the different rules the class compiled.   
Debate #2 Window Opens at 12:01am on Thursday, Feb. 25 and closes at 11:59PM on Sunday, Feb. 28.                    

Week 6 (Mar. 1-7):
Big Topic: Western Reservations

U2L9: “Sell or Starve” Rider: How did the US use the “Sell or Starve” rider to defeat the Sioux?

U2L10: Reservations Before 1890: What was life like for Native peoples on the “Indian Reserves” throughout the United States?

U2L11: The Southwest Exception: Why did Indian reservations in the southwest (NM, AZ, UT, and NV) generally fare better than Indians elsewhere?

Read: Killers of the Flower Moon, p. 1-110

Short Essay #3 for Killers of the Flower Moon, p. 1-110.  Question: Why did the Osage become targets for exploitation and attack by their white neighbors? 
(DUE by 11:59PM on Friday, Mar. 5)                         

Week 7 (Mar. 8-14):
Big Topic: The Ghost Dance

U2L12: The Ghost Dance: What was the Ghost Dance and what did it reveal about the situation facing the Native peoples of the west?

Watch: Documentary, The West, “Like Grass Before the Sickle”:
https://video-alexanderstreet-com.proxy-bc.researchport.umd.edu/watch/ghost-dance-with-audio-descriptions (You need to log into MyUMBC to access streaming video)


Week 8 (Mar. 15-21):


UNIT 3: Assimilation in the 20th Century

Week 9 (Mar. 22-28):
Big Topic: “Friends of the Indian” and The Re-Rise of Assimilation

U3L1: The Origins of the Dawes Act: Why did a coalition of reformers calling themselves the “Friends of the Indian” believe the time had come to end reservations?

U3L2: The Dawes Act (1887): How did the “Friends of the Indian” intend for the Dawes ACt to help Indian peoples?

U3L3: Indian Schools: How did Indian Schools attempt to speed up assimilations? What were the results for Indian children and traditional indigenous cultures?

Watch: PBS, Unspoken: America’s Native American Boarding Schools

Read: Killers of the Flower Moon, p. 111-260

Debate #3, Killers of the Flower Moon, p. 111-260.  Question: What does the investigation of the Osage murders reveal about the possibilities for justice for Native Americans in the 1920s?
Debate #3 Window Opens at 12:01am on Saturday, Mar. 27 and closes at 11:59PM on Tuesday, Mar. 30.  

Week 10 (Mar. 29-Apr. 4):
Big Topic: The Failures of Assimilation

U3L4: Meriam Report (1928): What shortcomings did the Meriam Report find with Indian assimilation efforts (especially the Dawes Act and Indian Schools)?

U3L5: “Red Progressives”: What does the short-lived “Society of American Indians” (1911-1923) reveal about the limits of assimilation in the early 20th century?

U3L6: Navajo Oil: What does the conflict over oil discovered on Navajo land reveal about power in Indian country?

U3L7: 1920s Pueblo Revolt: How did the Pueblo successfully resist cultural assimilation and federal attempts to transfer tribal lands to whites?


1) Read: Killers of the Flower Moon, p. 261-316

2) Watch: PBS, Native American Boomtown (2014, 26 mins.) (Benefits and problems created by reservation oil boom)

Short Essay #4 for Killers of the Flower Moon, p. 261-316 AND Native American Boomtown.  Question: Comparing Killers of the Flower Moon to the recent documentary Native American Boomtown, how much (or little) has changed? What has changed? What has remained the same or similar?
(DUE Friday, Apr. 2 by 11:59PM)

Week 11 (Apr. 5-11):
Big Topic: The Indians’ New Deal and WWII

U3L8: John Collier: Who was John Collier and how did he shape New Deal Indian policy?

U3L9: Indians’ New Deal: How did the New Deal apply to Indians and how did it change life on the Reservations?

U3L10: Indians’ New Deal Critics: Why and how did some Indian peoples criticize the Indians’ New Deal?

U3L11: Indians and WWII: What did WWII mean to Native Americans?

Read: Lakota Woman, 3-127

Week 12 (Apr. 12-18):
Big Topic: Cold War Indian Policy

U3L12: Compensation: How were Indians short-changed on an effort to compensate them for historical land losses and treaty violations?

U3L13: Termination: How was a policy advertised as freeing Indians from government control actually a new way of controlling Indians while cutting off assistance?

U3L14: Relocation: How did the policy of Relocation represent a new attempt at assimilation and ending reservations?

Watch: Documentary, PBS, Urban Rez:

Reading: Lakota Woman, 128-263

Debate #4 on Lakota Woman, ALL.  Question: Based on Mary Crow Dog’s memoir, in what ways did AIM succeed? Why do you think it succeeded? How did it fall short? Why do you think it fell short?
Debate #4 Window Opens at 12:01am on Thursday, Apr. 15 and closes at 11:59PM on Sunday, Apr. 18. 

UNIT 4: Modern Native America

Week 13 (Apr. 19-25):
Big Topic: The Indian Civil Rights Movement

U4L1: Origins of AIM: What was the American Indian Movement (AIM) and why did it start?

U4L2: AIM in Action: How did AIM try to bring positive change for Indian peoples?

U4L3: Decline of AIM: Why did AIM go into decline after the events described in Lakota Woman?

U4L4: Activism After AIM: What issues did Indian activists focus on after AIM? How successful have those efforts been?

Read: Rez Life, chapters 1-2

Short Essay #5 for Rez Life, chapters 1-2.  Question: What historical, legal, economic, and cultural constraints help define life on Ojibwe reservations in Minnesota?
(Short Essay #5 Due by 11:59PM on Friday, Apr. 23)

Week 14 (Apr. 26-May 2):
Big Topic: Cultural Preservation

U4L5: Cultural Preservation: What parts of Indigenous culture are Indian people trying to preserve and how are they engaging in preservation?

U4L6: Barriers to Preservation: What problems and dynamics hinder cultural preservation efforts?

Watch one or more of the following documentary films:

Weaving Worlds (2008) (Traditional Navajo weavers and relationship with rug merchants)

Spirits for Sale (2008)(Cultural appropriation of Indian religious ceremonies)

No More Smoke Signals (2009) (Lakota Radio Station on Reservation)

Grab (2011) (Preparation for Laguna Pueblo Ceremony)

Smokin’ Fish (2011) (Tlingit Alaskan and fishing industry)

Read: Rez Life, chapters 3-4

Debate #5 for Rez Life, chapters 3-4.  Question: How did tribal law enforcement contribute to the “memories of the kind of powerlessness that Indians felt in the face of the law”? How does childhood on the reservation contribute to similar feelings of powerlessness?
Debate #5 Window Opens at 12:01am on Thursday, Apr. 29 and closes at 11:59PM on Sunday, May 2. 

Week 15 (May 3-8):
Big Topic: Reservation Health and Welfare

U4L7: Health on the Reservation: What health problems so Native Americans face (especially on the reservations) and what has been done to address those problems?

Watch one of more of the following documentaries:

Good Meat (2011) (On obesity and health on Lakota reservation)

Red Road to Sobriety (1996) (Native American Sobriety Movement)

Woven Ways (2009) (Threats to traditional Navajo health and livestock culture from mining and coal fired power plants)

Read: Rez Life, chapters 5-6

Debate #6 for Rez Life, chapters 5-6. Question: Assess the state of economic justice and cultural preservation on Ojibwe reservations in Minnesota.
Debate #6 Window Opens at 12:01am on Thursday, May 6 and closes at 11:59PM on Sunday, May 9.

Week 16 (May 9-12):
Big Topic: Economics and Power on the Reservation

U4L7: Indian Casinos

VIEW Super Chief (1999, 73 min.):
(You need to log into MyUMBC to access streaming video)

(Note: This documentary is about reservation casinos and tribal politics and corruption on the White Earth Reservation in Minnesota—one of the reservations that features in Rez Life. In fact, David Treuer discusses some of the events covered by this documentary in his book. Aside from the story it tells, this documentary provides a visual record of reservation conditions that Treuer describes in Rez Life).

Short Essay #6 for Super Chief. Question: What were the political constraints on economic justice for ordinary Ojibwe on the White Earth Reservation (give examples from the documentary).
(Short Essay #6 Due Wednesday, May 12 by 11:59PM)